Developing IT Skills
by Enda Scott
What is it all about?
You can type letters, design posters, play with photos, be an artist, surf the internet and thousands of other things with computers. This is a brief introduction to some of the principal areas. It aims at giving an idea of what can be done with different programs and providing the basics so that you can then go and play ... thatís the real way to learn.
Playing, however, usually means knowing a few ground rules so, boring as it may seem, it is highly advisable to go through the first section and get to know how your computer is organised first. Once you know how to change gears driving is an awful lot easier!
This pack can be used on your own but there will also be opportunities now and then to go through it with someone there to help. For each area there is an introductory section and an advanced section for those who want to go a little further.
1. Getting to know your computer.
Here are seven parts of a computer. Can you link them by arrow to the picture?
Screen / Monitor Mouse Hard Disk (C)
CD-ROM Drive Disk Drive (A) Keyboard CPU
1.1 * Key
SCREEN / MONITOR: this is obviously the mini television which lets us see what is happening. Remember it may have an on/off button and usually has controls for brightness, centring etc.
MOUSE: The little thing with a cable which you move by hand on your desk to move an arrow around the computer screen. This is the principal means of communicating with modern computers. It does take a few minutes to get used to co-ordinating hand movements with what is happening on the screen the first times you use a mouse so be patient.
The mouse has two or three spaces at the top/front for "clicking". If it has three you will probably never use the one in the centre so donít worry about it. The ones on the left and right are more important. The one on the right can offer additional aid and information as you work but isnít as important as the one on the left. This is the one that needs to be clicked either once or twice very quickly. Whatís the difference between once and twice? In theory once "selects" something and twice "activates" a command. Lost? Donít worry in usage it is very easy to decide when you click once or twice and if in doubt always click twice.
HARD DISK (C): You may have confused this with CPU as they are both in the main body of the computer (the box under or beside the screen). This is where programs and the material you create is stored on the computer ... an enormous filing cabinet if you like. Donít worry about the why but do try to remember that the hard disk is referred to as "C" or in Spanish "Unidad C".
CD-ROM DRIVE: The place where you put a CD-ROM (basically a CD for computers). These are found on all modern computers as they provide a means for transferring or storing large amounts of information. CD-ROMS led to what is called the "multimedia computer" i.e. one which can provide sound, images even video. Many CD-ROMS such as encyclopaedias need to be placed in this drive while in use. For the moment, however, you cannot record onto CD-ROMS. The CD-ROM drive is referred to as drive "D" usually.
DISK DRIVE (A): This is where you can place floppy disks, small disks which allow you to transfer information from one computer to another. You can record onto these so if you want to move a document from your computer to another you use a floppy disk. Again the why is not important but this is usually referred to as drive "A".
KEYBOARD: Yes, the bit that looks like a typewriter. It has, however, different keys to a typewriter. Along with SHIFT you have CTRL and ALT and ALT GR all of which provide different functions to certain keys. The numbers F1-F12 provide "quick" commands in certain programs.
CPU: Finally, the "brain" of the computer. This is the box which contains the chips etc which make the whole machine work.
1.2 SOME MORE BASIC TERMINOLOGY.
Can you match the three definitions in with the vocabulary underneath?
a) this is the "tool" which allows you do a specific job i.e. word-processing, drawing, accessing internet etc. Your computer will have a large number of these.
b) every time you create a piece of work you can save / store it on the computer for further use. When stored it is referred to as a _______
c) In an office files are stored in filing cabinets for easy access. On the computer the same happens. Files are stored in different ________. Your hard disk is full of hundreds of these within which are thousands of files.
1. Directory (Carpeta in Spanish) _________
2. File (Archivo in Spanish) _________
3. Program _________
These are three important concepts which will come up again and again as you work through this manual.
1.3 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM AND WHY SHOULD I BOTHER KNOWING?
To accomplish any Task on the computer, write a letter for example, you use a specific program, in this case a Word Processor. Nevertheless, no matter what program you may use they all have to work together and follow a set of rules: it is similar to using a library ... you may only be interested in reading one book but they are ordered according to set rules and this is what makes access and reading of a specific book possible.
The Operating System is what orders the different programs and files on our computer and it is essential to know how it works on a very basic level in order to make full use of the computer and what it offers.
The majority of modern home computers use the famous Windows operating system which has different (but very similar) versions the most common at the moment being Windows 95 or the more recent Windows 98.
* ADVANCED Task
- find the switch on the big box and turn on your computer. Remember, it may or may not be necessary to switch on the monitor also.
2. Windows 95/98 operating system.
This is typically what you see when you switch on the computer. A screen with a bar at the bottom which has INICIO (START in English) in the left corner and some other images in the right corner.
On the left of the main screen you can see a number of "icons". Icons basically represent programs. Some refer to programs kept completely in the computers memory while others will not work until the appropriate CD-ROM is in the CD-ROM drive. Unless you are brave enough to open a program you will quickly get bored looking at this main screen.
2.2 OPENING A PROGRAM:
Remember the mouse. You have to position the arrow on screen until it is in the centre of one of the icons.
2.3 MINIMALIZING AND CLOSING A PROGRAM:
Take a minute to study the screen which should look like this.
Look at the top right corner of the screen. There are three buttons
_  and X
Well done! You have successfully opened and closed a program. These fundamentals are basic to all programs with only slight variations. If there are variations, in some CD-ROMS especially, it is always clearly sign-posted how to leave the program.
2.4 THERE IS ALWAYS ANOTHER WAY: INICIO:
One of the sometimes infuriating things about computers is that there is usually a minimum of three ways of doing most things. While the icons on the main screen represent programs on your computer they may not reflect ALL the programs you have.
If you ever have a problem finding or using the icons on the main screen it is usually more reliable to open a program via INICIO.
2.5 HOW TO CLOSE YOUR COMPUTER:
Unfortunately it is not as simple as just switching it off. You have to follow the following procedure.
The machine will now either close everything including the current automatically or leave a screen saying "AHORA SE PUEDE APAGAR EL EQUIPO" and you can now you can physically switch it off.
Computers are forever stalling and sulking. The first rule is to save you work constantly if you are typing etc. The second rule is not to panic. The third rule is that almost all problems are resolved by re-starting your computer.
A quick way of restarting if the computer jams is to hold down the CTRL and ALT buttons (left of space bar) and press the SUPR button (in bunch of six keys on right) twice.
* REVISION Tasks
1. Practise opening and closing programs on the computer. Try using the icons and also through INICIO. Try out some of the CD-ROM programs also to get used to how they are organised. (Some CD-ROMS when placed in the drive start automatically so you donít have to do anything).
2. Try restarting your computer using the buttons or the on/off button. When it restarts it will do some automatic checks and take longer to get back to normal.
3. Remember to switch your computer off following the correct procedure.
4. What happens if you put a music CD in the computer and turn the speakers on?
Operating systems and how the run can be just about as complicated as you want. The more you know, however, the easier it becomes to organise your work and get the most out of your computer.
What follows is a brief description of the principal if still basic tools an operating system can offer you.
3.2 PROGRAMS THAT COME FREE
Windows 95/98 comes with in-built programs (known also as software). Click on INICIO, PROGRAMS and ACCESORIOS and see if you can find WORDPAD a word processor and PAINT a small graphics program. Try them out.
3.3 ORGANISING YOUR COMPUTERS CONTENTS:
You are now looking at the contents of your Hard Disk (C) which as you can see is composed of yellow FOLDERS / DIRECTORIES (like filing cabinets) which can hold more DIRECTORIES and or individual files. Explore for a minute.
* Task 1:
In order to organise your work more neatly and logically it is often necessary to create your own FOLDERS / DIRECTORIES (carpeta in Spanish).
* Task 2:
It is also often necessary to copy and move files from one place to another, even delete them. Letís copy a file into your new carpeta.
Remember that there were other options when you clicked over a file with the right button (MOVER, DELETE etc) which can also be used but be careful about deleting files!.
Most files when deleted are not immediately lost. They go to the PAPALERA DE RECICLAJE. If you open this from the main screen it allows you to recover deleted files or indeed delete them forever.
3.4 INSTALLING PROGRAMS (SOFTWARE):
When you get a new program (on disks or CD-ROM) you often have to install it first. There are usually two methods:
a) when you put the disk or CD-ROM in a set of instructions automatically appears and you simply follow them.
b) you have to do it "manually" by following the following steps.
3.5 INSTALLING HARDWARE:
When you click on MI PC you notice there is also a folder for IMPRESORAS (printers). If you click twice here and then select AGREGAR you can install a printer on your computer.
ACCESO TELEFONICA A REDES also in MI PC is often necessary to establish an internet connection.
Finally to install other hardware such as sound cards etc. go to MI PC, PANEL DE CONTROL and AGREGAR HARDWARE.
* REVISION Tasks:
1. Create a new folder called PRACTICE and copy three files from three different folders into it.
2. Open a word processor and save a file into the above folder.
3. Delete this new folder and all its contents.
Please do not install any programs or hardware on school computers without consulting
4. Basic Word Processing:
By far the most common use of a computer is that of an advanced typewriter, i.e. as a word processor. A word processing program allows you to type anything from a very simple sentence to a graphic enhanced, visually attractive, promotional document. In this first section we are going to look at the basics of how to open, format, save and alter a basic document using a simple but relatively powerful program. In the Advanced section we will deal exclusively with one of the most powerful and most common word processing programs Microsoft Word. Nevertheless, as you will discover below, the simplest program can still lend a touch of class to any document if used correctly.
4.2 OPENING / TYPING / SAVING:
Following the same instructions as in section 2.2:
when a new screen opens position the arrow over the box PROCESADOR DE TEXTOS and click once again with the left button on the mouse.
You now have a blank page for typing your text. Take a minute to examine the menu bars on the top of your screen. We will look at some of the most important functions later but you may want to click once on the small icon of a magnifying glass ... it will show you your full, clean page ready for typing. To return click on CANCELAR.
I really like learning all about computing because it is so interesting and stimulating. I much prefer spending my time in front of a screen rather than being outside playing football, sunbathing or simply having a beer. Isnít life wonderful!
Yes, I am already becoming comfortable with this new machine. In fact in no time at all I expect to be programming my own computer at home to make the breakfast, plan my classes ...
Congratulations: you have just opened a word processing program, created a document and saved it for future use / revisions.
4.3 RE-OPENING / FORMATING:
* Task 1:
Having created a basic word processed document letís now make some changes. There are two fundamentals if you want to change the text.
a) move the cursor to a certain point in the text
b) select a segment of text for formatting
a) You have two paragraphs of text on your screen. If you want to go back over this text and correct spelling, change capitals etc. it is very easy. Using the mouse you can move a cursor in the shape of a vertical line over the text. If you place it in a specific position and click once with the left clicker it will remain there. You can now use the delete key, space bar etc to insert, delete or change the text that already exists.
Remember to save your changes immediately. You can never trust a computer so if you donít save your changes it is possible that in case of emergency you may lose all your recent work. Save every couple of minutes is the best recommendation. It is also possible to save different versions of a file using the SAVE AS option and giving it a different name each time you save.
b) The other method used for formatting is that of selecting a piece of text to be changed: this can be a letter, word, line, paragraph or the entire text. To do this you place the cursor at the beginning of the text you want to change, hold down the left clicker and as you hold it DRAG the cursor over the required text. When you release the clicker the text selected is now framed in a black box.
You can now format this selected text. Look at the menus at the top of the screen. Where it says Times New Roman you can click on the arrow and change the type face. Where it says 12 you can change the size of the type. On the right you can select Bold face (N), Italic (K) or Underline (S).
If you want to change the whole text use the menu EDICIÓN and Seleccionar Todo.
Finally, using the same principle it is very easy to move text within a document by cutting or copying it and then pasting. Select a word and then in the menu EDICIÓN use cortar. Move the cursor to another point in the text and in EDICIÓN select pegar. Instead of cortar you can also use copiar if what you want to do is to copy. This can be done with any element of text from a letter to the entire document.
* REVISION Tasks:
1. Type a short formal letter but format it correctly with addresses etc. in correct position.
2. Write a single line of text "This exercise is very difficult". Copy it ten times but make each copy a different size, different type face and can you find out how to change the colour and how to align it?
3. Spend some time exploring the menus on the top of your screen, IINSERTAR, FORMATO and HERRAMIENTAS. They will give you an idea of other possibilities when formatting a document although in the next section they will be looked at a bit more in dept.
5. Advanced Word Processing
The program we have seen in the last section, Microsoft Works, is a simple word processing package (along with other functions) and in many ways once you can use one you can use them all. Nevertheless, while WORKS is perfect for most simple operations a more complete program and more common throughout the world is Microsoft WORD.
In this section we will examine some of the more complex things you can do with a word processor. Please note that WORD is not installed on all our computers.
* Task 1:
5.3 SOME MORE NOVELITIES:
If you continue to examine the menu bars you will find many more things that this program allows you to do.
Remember there are usually more than ways of doing things on a computer so many menu bar functions are repeated in the menus on the top of the screen. Overall the menus (ARCHIVO etc) contain the more complete list of functions.
Word makes the addition of graphics very easy.
* Task 1:
Remember by using the right clicker over objects you can gain quick access to options such as cut, copy or in the case of boxes, send behind text etc.
Tables are very useful for placing information in column, numbers, names etc.
* Task 1:
There are hundreds of more things you can do with this program, many of which you may never use. It is worth taking some time to go through the menus.
* REVISION Tasks
1. Find out how to number the pages.
2. Find out how to insert footnotes in a document.
3. You can have more than one file/document open at the same time. Try it out.
4. If you open more than one document this allows you to cut from one and paste into the other. Try it out.
6. Desk-Top Publishing
While you can do a lot with a normal word processing package it is often easier to use a different, more specifically designed program for designing notices, brochures, magazines etc. This is called desk-top publishing and the program we use in the academy is Microsoft PUBLISHER, a powerful and relatively easy to use package. Once you get to know the basics you can create attractive documents from signs to birthday cards etc in minutes.(Please note that there are various versions of Publisher so depending on which you are using some of the below may differ slightly in detail)
6.2 GETTING STARTED
Click twice to open Publisher and you are immediately faced with an array of options which tell you a lot about what the program can be used for. We are not going to examine them now but the ASISTENTES provide numerous templates (models) which can allow you to create projects in a matter of seconds ... basically the program does all the work for you.
Another option is that of opening a document which already exists but for the moment lets begin at the beginning: select Página en Blanco.
Now we have more options regarding the size of page we want to use. Select Página completa. And now, finally, we have a blank page in front of us.
6.3 WHATíS NEW
What you notice immediately is that this is not like a word processor. You have a blank page but you can do nothing on it ... you can't type on it, draw on it as it stands. It is vital to understand the following: in order to use the page you have to draw MARCOS (Frames) on it and work WITHIN these frames. The frames can be of different types, for Text, Images, Tables or WordArt. (Can you find the corresponding buttons on the menu bar down the left side of your screen?)
6.4 TRYING IT OUT
* Task 1
If you start working on something else these squares will disappear but they can be reactivated at any time by clicking once within a frame. Note also when you get the image of a van you can simply move the frame around the page. Note also that these frames can be cut, copied etc just like any piece of selected text in a word processor by using the menu EDICIÓN.
* Task 2
6.5 MORE COMPLEX DESIGN
Up to now we have discussed the basics of how the design process works (i.e. drawing frames) and have experimented with a text frame or Marco. Now, letís do something more interesting graphically.
* Task 1:
What we have done so far may not seem much but if mastered it is mastering the key to how this program works and the rest is a question of practice. Try the exercises below and then the advanced section if you are interested in exploring further. Once the basics are grasped it is a simple program to use.
* REVISION Tasks
1. Try to reproduce the following two pages which have been created using Publisher. because of printing they are in black and white but feel free to use colour where you please.
2. If you remember we mentioned the ASISTENTES (Templates) at the very beginning. Open the program again and examine how they work. They can save you a lot of time and effort sometimes and are always available from the left hand menu box on screen.
7. Advanced Desk-top Publishing
7.1 MORE GRAPHICS
We have explored three of the buttons on the left menu box. If you look below them there is a group of four more which allow you to draw squares, lines, circles and other objects. Try them out. Remember each object can be changed in terms of colour, thickness of line and in-fill by using the buttons top right of screen once the object is activated.
For more advanced design two more tricks may be useful. Firstly, if you activate one object and while keeping the control key pressed down on our keyboard you than activate another object you can link these objects together. This means they can be moved together without changing their position in respect to each other.
Secondly the ORGANIZAR menu can be useful for helping you align objects and for placing some behind others ... you can have different layers of objects in this program.
Another button from the left menu box allows the creation of tables. These work very much as they do in a word processor and can be useful for ordering information into rows and columns. The FORMAT menu (especially BORDES) can offer some useful options for perfecting the look of your tables.
If you are working with large quantities of text or creating a more "magazine" look it can be very useful to create columns within a text frame. Draw a Marco de texto and then click on the FORMATO menu. Then choose Propiedades de Marco de texto and choose a number of columns.
* REVISION Task
1. The next four pages have all been designed using Publisher. You may not have the time or patience to recreate them all completely but do think about how they were done and experiment with some of the newer items / tricks you may not be so sure about.
How many of these questions can you answer?
1. Do you know what the Internet is?
2. Can you think of two more "names" for the "WEB"?
3. Do you know what a "Website" is?
4. Do you know what "Hypertext" means?
5. Do you know what is meant by a "Link"?
6. Do you know what a "Browser" is?
7. Do you know three ways of finding material on the internet?
1. "Internet" is the result of computers world-wide being
united through the telephone system (lines, satellite etc). Using a
cable and a modem (the machine which encodes the computer information for transfer over phone lines) you plug into the phone socket and can "talk" to computers all over the world that are also connected paying about 160ptas an hour to the phone company.
2. Just as satellites can bring you phone calls, TV and many other services, Internet refers to a collection of different services the best known of which are e-mail (electronic mail) and the World Wide Web (WWW, the web). The web is only one of Internetís services but is certainly the most used and most interesting because it presents information with text, pictures, sounds etc and also allows you to move from one place to another by simply clicking once on highlighted words. It is extremely easy to use. When we speak of "internet" in E.L.I. we are usually referring to the WEB.
3. The web is composed of "websites". A "website" is a collection of "pages" (usually related in theme) maintained by an individual, company etc. E.L.I. has between 80-100 pages making up our website (information about the academy, Es Más, links etc). Each website has a "homepage" which refers to the page you first go to (automatically) on a website (our homepage is what you see when we first open our internet connection) Ė itís like the front page of a newspaper including usually a list of contents.
4. You move through pages or sites by using "hypertext". When the mouse arrow turns to a hand (over an image, or underlined text) all you have to do is click once to move on to another page.
5. All websites have an address. E.L.I has the following:http://www.eli.es. So if you want to find a particular site one option is to type the address (very carefully as any spelling mistake will result in an error).
6. Very often however there is so much information we have no idea of the address so we have two options: one is to use LINKS, i.e. someone elses work. If you look at the E.L.I. links page you will see lots of hyperlinks grouped under categories (cinema etc). This means that I have found these addresses but instead of having to remember them all you have to do is click on the item which interests you (Song Lyrics, for example) and you go to this page automatically. The second option is to SEARCH the Web. At the bottom of all our links pages there is an option SEARCH THE WEB: you then have to put in a word or group of words (linked with +) and wait for the results (not always perfect).
7. As with anything on a computer you need a special program to make it happen: if you want to type you need a word processor and if you want to use the web you need a BROWSER the name of the one we use being Internet Explorer.
8.3 KNOW YOUR BROWSER
There are two principle browsers NETSCAPE and Microsoftís INTERNET EXPLORER. They are basically the same but we use the latter. Both are very easy to use but take a minute or two to familiarise yourself with the layout and the buttons as it makes surfing the web easier. note especially the back and forward buttons which allow you to move through pages you have already seen; the space where you can type addresses, HOME to return to starting page and HISTORIAL which keeps a record of pages you may have seen at an earlier date: it can be possible to see these pages without actually being connected if you are using an updated version of the browser.
On the E.L.I. computers all you have to do is click on the carpeta NET and then on EXPLORER to enter the internet. If you donít have a Supercable 24hour cable connection you will then be asked to dial a telephone number. For the following tasks open INTERNET EXPLORER. It should take you automatically towww.eli.es our homepage. If not type in this address and now you can start on the tasks.
* Task 1:
- Click ONCE on ACADEMIA on the navigational bar to the left of your screen.
- You have now used a hyperlink to move to another page.
- Use the ATRÁS button (top of screen on the left) to go back.
- Use the INICIO button to go back to English Language Institute HOMEPAGE.
* Task 2:
- Return to the English Language Institute HOMEPAGE if you are not already there (use the INICIO button on the top of your screen)
- Click once on LINKS
- Click once on ENGLISH
- Click once on DAVEīS ESL CAFE (on left, under General)
- How many different activities can you find here?
* Task 3:
- Return to English Language Institute HOMEPAGE (Inicio!)
- Can you see where it is possible to type addresses ... top where you can read www.eli.es?
- Click once here and now you can type the following address: www.eli.es/class.htm and press ENTER. (always be very careful typing addresses: they must be exact!)
- Choose your level and then choose a lesson plan. Can you do it?
* Task 4:
Sometimes you donít know how to find what you want and have to SEARCH.
- Type this address www.yahoo.com and ENTER
- You can type a word (or more) in the space and click on SEARCH. Try it for SEVILLE
Privacy / Security. Always be careful about giving out personal details on the internet.
9. Advanced Internet
9.1 MORE SEARCHING
You have seen some simple searching in the last section which gives an idea of how useful searching can be: you very often get tens of thousands of results and it is too time consuming to run through even a fraction.
The key lies in clever searching which implies two things a) get to know the search engines you use and b) search for more complex combinations.
a) There are many search engines on the net and each has a different style which may appeal on a personal basis or because of the way they search.www.yahoo.com is excellent because it is organised into categories and this means that before searching you can go to the general area you are interested in and only search there. www.google.com produces very different results on the basis of web popularity. www.webcrawler.com searches various search engines to produce the results. Ultimately it is a question of trial and error but remember there is lots of choice out there.
b) Effective searching also depends on what you search for. If you put in one word such as "sting" you will get all sorts of information. If you put a chain such as "Sting+music+rock+pictures" you have a far better chance of finding a photo of Sting the rock musician. The string of words you choose depends on you and you may need to try various combinations in any one search. Careful, however, as the format of a string of words may vary from one search engine to another: some use quotation marks, others + signs between words so do have a look at their HELP or ADVANCED SEARCH information.
9.2 CUTTING / PASTING / PRINTING
On many pages you find you may want to store the information, be it text or images, for later reference or use. This is very simple.
In the case of text drag your cursor over it to select the text as you would in a word processor. Then using a right click or the menu EDICIÓN you can copy the material. Open a word processor and you can now paste this text into a normal word processing file for storage, editing etc.
To save an image off the internet just use the right clicker over an image and choose the option SAVE AS. You can now save a copy to your computer to be opened later with any graphics program.
For teachers, saving material and using later (text and or images) in Word or Publisher can be a nice way of making worksheets that are up to date and interesting.
9.3 OTHER PROGRAMS / SERVICES
The "web" or "www" is only one of many services but if by far the most common. Two examples of other typical uses: FTP is used to transfer files from one computer to another (see section on web page design) MIRC is a program for chatting (although you can also chat through your browser).
Occasionally, when surfing you are asked to install a "Plug-in" which is a mini program that allows a web site to be shown in a certain way (usually implying lots of multimedia material such as graphics, sounds etc). As a general rule there is no problem in accepting these (very often you already have them installed without knowing).
As a general rule it is still difficult to get a virus from an internet page: what you have to be careful about is opening attachments in emails.
9.5 MAKING A CONNECTION
Connecting to internet basically implies a call to a computer which will act as your "server" i.e. it will provide you with the connections you may need. This call is made over the telephone line (or sometimes cable or even satellite). For the "server" to receive your call you need to have an agreement usually implying you pay for this service. More and more there are offers of free internet connections which means you donít even have to pay although there are no guarantees of quality either.
To make these calls your computer must have a modem attached. The "server" you are connecting to (either free or charging) will provide you with the information you need to connect and the alterations you have to make on your computer. What is also very helpful for first timers is the HELP provided by Windows 95/98 itself (go to HELP and then search for connecting to internet).
* REVISION Tasks
1. Go out there and surf ... there is no better way.
2. Try saving some material and creating a worksheet for use in class using WORD or even better Publisher.
3. Try doing the exact same search string of words in different engines and compare your results.
4. Look through some of the categories inwww.yahoo.com and get a feel for how it is organised and how this can help you find information quicker.
10.1 USING OUTLOOK EXPRESS
a) Reading an email:
- Click twice on NET.
- Click twice on EMAIL
- Check that it says BANDEJA DE ENTRADA, (IN TRAY), on top of your screen (If not you click on the arrow and change it to the bandeja de entrada ... the others being out, deleted and sent). You can see a list saying DE, ASUNTO and RECIBIDO ... a list of emails which have been received. To read one click twice on top. It is that simple.
b) To send one:
- Click twice on NET.
- Click twice on EMAIL
- On the left-hand side click on REDACTAR MENSAJE
- PARA: click between the lines and write the email address of the person you are sending it to. Usually they have the form: firstname.lastname@example.org. Be careful to be precise and usually they use small letters only. Alt Gr and 2 gives you the @ sign.
- Careful with the options C or CC. The first option allows you to send copies to other people. The second allows the same but without people knowing who the copies have been sent to.
- In ASUNTO you write the subject of the message or more importantly, if you are writing to a person at an address which is not private, this is where you write THE NAME OF WHO IT IS FROM. When people write to you at the school they should use this space to say FOR THE ATTENTION OF ENDA and therefore no one else will open your mail it being clear who it is intended for.
- Click in the blank space below and you can type your message / letter. When you are finished click once on the envelope marked
ENVIAR in the top left corner. It is now in the out tray. To actually send it you now have to click on ENVIAR AND RECIBIR.
c) How to Reply to one
- If you receive one you do not have to know the address in order to reply. Close it and from the options on the left select RESPONDER AL AUTOR. You can now type at the end of the message and it will go back automatically to the sender. For the same reason if you write to someone they will automatically be able to get back to you.
What is described above is how to send an email when using the school email address or one that has been given to you by your service provider. It is also possible to have a "free" email account which has two advantages a) it is free and b) it is portable ... unlike what is described in the previous section you can access it from any computer anywhere in the world once you have an internet connection.
To set up a free email account: open INTERNET EXPLORER and then there are many web sites to go to the most popular beingwww.hotmail.com and follow the instructions on this web page.
NEVER open an email attachment if you are not sure what it is (even if it comes from somebody you know). Virus are spread by attachments: opening an email itself will not infect your computer.
* REVISION Tasks
1. Using OUTLOOK send an email email@example.com telling me what you think of this course (and be positive!).
2. Open EXPLORER and go towww.hotmail.com and open a free email account for yourself. If you want to see other such sites go down our homepage until you can click on "Free Email" in the green box.
11. Web Design
Basic web design is very easy. Good web design is much more complicated. Being the www, however, it is also possible to learn a lot on-line about web design. What follows is a very basic glimpse into how easy it can be. How far you then want to take it is up to you.
In theory any web page can be designed using the most basic word processor, as long as you know how to write in the code. Have a look at what the code looks like by opening your browser, selecting any page and from the menu VER and then CÖDIGO FUENTE. It may look impressive but it is not that complicated. It is, however, boring to have to type all this so most people now use a program to help them. Most programs for web page design operate on different levels: on one you can deal directly with the code by typing while on another you can move items around much as you do in PUBLISHER ... in fact it isnít much more complicated than word processing. For the following examples we are using a program called Microsoft FRONTPAGE. There are, of course, many others, some of them free off the web.
11.2 A SIMPLE PAGE
* Task 1:
11.3 A LITTLE MORE
So far so good ... it is no more difficult than word processing. Letís take it a step further.
* Task 1:
* Task 2:
This is how a basic page is designed. Remember the best place to learn more is the web itself because a) you can look at any page you like and see (even copy) its source code and b) there are hundreds of pages with manuals, free graphics etc etc there for page designers. use any search engine to search orwww.yahoo.com and its internet section.
12. Advanced Internet Design
Miracles can be achieved with what was learned in the last section ... it is surprising the number of pages designed on that basis alone. Nevertheless, more accurate placing of elements on a page requires the use of TABLES. Tables give what many pages portray as the column affect. On one level they function exactly as tables in a word processing program; on another they are vastly more important as any kind web page with a lot of information will require extensive use of tables.
* Task 1:
It is no use having a web page on your own computer because apart from friends no one will ever see it. To have a page on the internet available to everyone with an internet connection you need two things: a) a computer / server to store your pages with 24 hour internet connection and b) an address for your page.
a) To get a computer or server to keep your pages you usually have to pay although increasingly there are many free offers. once you sign up with a company to provide you normal internet access they usually allow you some space with them also to store some pages.
b) If you are given free server space or even paying you will be given a random address (often long and bulky) by that server for your pages. if, however, you want a specific name such aswww.eli.es you have to pay an additional registration fee in order to claim that particular address.
Once you have a computer to store your pages and an address you then have to transfer your pages from your own computer to this remote server. The most normal means is through FTP ... a special File Transfer Protocol using a program (such as CuteFTP available free fromwww.tucows.com). This program allows you to see your own hard disk on the left of the screen and the remote computer on the right. By simply dragging a file from one to the other you move files from your computer to the server. Your server will, however, have to give you an address, account name and password in order to connect.
12.3 GENERAL HINTS
As you can see basic design is simple, publishing and more complex design requires a little more effort although it isnít all that difficult either. Here are some hints to keep things working smoothly.
Well done, you got here.
Any problems or further questions donít hesitate to get in touch with ENDA